The picture shows the term Karate and its Japanese Kanji.

What is Karate?

Karate is a Japanese martial art. It consists of a wide variety of physical techniques (Waza) for self-defense like punches, elbow strikes, kicks, knee strikes, blocks, throws, arm bars, joint locks, and choke holds. Most of the time, Karate practitioners, so called “Karateka”, fight and protect themselves without weapons. In some styles weapons like Nunchakus, sticks (Bo), and Sai become occasionally utilized.

Karate had been developed on the Islands of Okinawa in the 19th century under the influence of Chinese martial arts in the 19th century. At the beginning of 20th century, Okinawa masters introduced Karate to mainland Japan.

Both in Okinawa and Japan Karate has been evolving. As a consequence a variety of styles with distinctive features has emerged. The most prominent Karate styles are:

  • Shotokan
  • Shotokai
  • Goju-ryu
  • Shito-ryu
  • Shorin-ryu
  • Wado-ryu
  • Kyokushinkai
  • Seidokaikan
  • Sport karate

What does Karate mean?

Karate is Japanese (/kəˈrɑːti/) and means literally: empty hand. In Japanese Kanji it is written 空手, while (Kara) means “empty” and (Te) means “hand”. This meaning shall express the weaponless and defensive character of Karate.

However, the meaning of Karate changed in the early 20th century. Due to his Chinese roots the art was called Tode/Tuidi/Tote, which literally means “Chinese hand” or “Tang hand” referring to Chinese Tang dynasty in the language of Okinawa. In Japanese Kanji it was written: 唐手. The can thereby be pronounced either “Todi” for Tang Dynasty and China or as “Kara”, which also stands for China or the Han state.

The pronunciation of as “Kara” built a linguistic bridge to its later meaning as empty hand. Because in Japanese like in many languages a spoke term can have different meanings and writings. Then “Kara” can also be written with the Kanji ““, which means empty. By exchanging the Kanji the “Chinese hand” became the “empty hand”.

The change of the meaning took place rather gradually within the Karate community. On October 25, 1936, the a group of Okinawa Master and officials met at Showa Kaikan Hall in Naha City, Okinawa Prefecture because the Ryukyu Shimpo Newspaper invited them to discuss the change of the meaning.

The seriousness of the name change becomes clear by the consideration of the attendees list. Among the Karate masters Chomo Hanashiro, Kyan Chotoku, Choki Motobu, Chojun Miyagi, Juhatsu Kyoda, Choshin Chibana, Shimpan Gusukuma, Chotei Oroku, Genwa Nakasone (Karate Kenkyusha affiliated with Shudokan of Kanken Toyama) took part. As guest attended:

  • Koichi Sato, Manager of Educational Affairs Department
  • Zenpatsu Shimabukuro, Director of Okinawa Prefectural Library
  • Kitsuma Fukushima, Regimental Headquarters Adjutant
  • Eizo Kita, Chief of Okinawa Prefectural Police Affairs Section
  • Chosho Goeku, Chief of Okinawa Prefetural Security Section
  • Gizaburo Furukawa, Supervisor of Physical Education of Okinawa Prefecture
  • Sei Ando, author
  • Choshiki Ota, President of Ryukyu Shimpo Newspaper Company
  • Kowa Matayoshi, Chief Editor of Ryukyu Shimpo
  • Zensoku Yamaguchi, Director of Ryukyu Shimpo Newspaper Company
  • Tamashiro, a reporter of Ryukyu Shimpo

The major argument for the change gave Genwa Nakasone:

When Karate (written as “empty hand”) was first introduced in Tokyo, it was introduced as Toudi (written as “Chinese hand”). At that time Karate was a novel tradition that took some time before becoming popular. Schools contended that Toudi was not a suitable term and had, when writing the first ideogram of the term, used Hiragana rather then the ideogram. Some Dojo are being called “Nihon Karate Kenkyukai (translated as Japan ka ra (Hiragana) Hand Research Society). However, that was during the transition period. Now, just about all Dojo in Tokyo areas, including the two principal Dojo, are using the new term, Karate (“empty hand”). Most university clubs are also using the new term.

The reason for changing Toudi to Karate is simply because it defines a tradition in which one uses his empty hands, or Karaken (“empty fist”). With that in mind, I would like to recommend that the current name “Karatedo” (“the way of the empty hand”) become the standard in consideration of Karate´s future development of a Japanese budo.

Patrick & Yuriko McCarthy 1994: The [1936] Meeting of the Okinawan Karate Masters. In: International Ryukyu Research Society.

According to Genwa Nakasone the change took place because it was logical to call it empty hand. Some commentators, on the other hand, see the reason for the change of the meaning of Karate in the growing Japanese nationalism during the 1930´s pre-war era. While this might be true for some groups it is also plausible that many practitioners were convinced about the logical validity of the argument.


What is Kata?

Kata () means “form”. Kata simulates a fighting situations against several imaginary opponents. The fight, however, is stylized. That means:

  • All techniques applied are formalized and not executed in a jiyu-kamae (free) fashion
  • They follow a dramaturgy with a preset sequence of motions and a rhythms
  • The fighting situations and the application of the techniques are abstract
  • As a result, the real-life application, called bunkai (see below), depends on the interpretation of the karateka.
Shihan Osaka, who holds the nickname “the textbook” of Shotokan, shows the performs the kata kanku sho. Kanku shi beongs to the advanced katas of Shotokan.

Why are Kata Stylized?

Kata serve several purposes within Shotokan karate. To combine all these purposes in one routine the techniques and their execution had to be adjusted an harmonized. The aspects are:

A legend also says that karate training was prohibited back in Okinawa. Therefore, karate masters had to find a way to teach their techniques secretly. One way to do this was to disguise the actually training as some sort of physical routine or dance.

Every kata has a specific embusen.

What Kata Shotokan Karate consists of?

In sum, Shotokan comprises 26 katas with different approaches and aims. Within the 26 katas their exist six families of katas: Heian, Tekki, Bassai, Kanku, Gojushiho, and the Ji-family with Jion, Jitte, and Jiin.

Most Shotokan katas have a predecessor from Okinawa Karate. Tekki Shodan, for instance, also exists in the Karate system from the peninsula. In Okinawa they call it Naihanchi. Similarly, Jion has a Okinawa equivalent. However, both kata slightly differ as you can see in the following video with Tatsuya Naka.

Tatsuya Naka compares the Shotokan Jion with the Shito-Ryu Jion.

The following list shows all Shotokan kata and their family.

Heian Katas

Name Jap. Kanji Steps/Moves Engl. Name
Shodan平安初段 21 Peaceful Mind One
Nidan 平安二段 26Peaceful Mind Two
Sandan平安三段 20 Peaceful Mind Three
Yondan 平安四段 27 Peaceful Mind Four
Godan 平安五段 23 Peaceful Mind Five

Tekki Katas

NameJap. KanjiSteps/MovesEngl. Name
Shodan鉄騎初段23Iron Horse One
Nidan鉄騎弐段24Iron Horse Two
Sandan鉄騎参段 26Iron Horse Three

Bassai Katas

NameJap. KanjiSteps/MovesEngl. Name
Dai 拔塞大 42Penetrating the Fortress-Big
Sho 拔塞小 27Penetrating the Fortress – Small

Kanku Katas

NameJap. KanjiSteps/MovesEngl. Name
Dai 観空大 65 To look at the Sky – Big
Sho 観空大 48 To look at the Sky – Small

Gojushiho Katas

NameJap. KanjiSteps/MovesEngl. Name
Dai五十四歩大6754 Steps – Big
Sho五十四歩小6554 Steps – Small


NameJap. KanjiSteps/MovesEngl. Names
Jion慈恩47Love (and) Goodness
Jiin慈陰38Mercy (and) Shadow
Jitte十手24Ten Hands

Katas Without A Direct Relationship

NameJap. KanjiSteps/MovesEngl. Name
Enpi燕飛37Flying Swallow
Gankaku岩鶴42Crane on the Rock
Hangetsu半月41Half Moon
Chinte珍手 32Incredible Hands
Sochin 壯鎭41Preserve Peace
Meikyo明鏡33Mirror of the soul
Nijushiho二十四步2424 Steps
Wankan 王冠24Crown of a king
Unsu雲手 48Cloud Hands

Every kata can be applied to fighting situation. The application is called bunkai.

Further Readings:

Crawford, Peter: Gojushiho Dai and Sho: The Solution of the Confusion. The Shotokan Times 2019.

Wiessmann, Florian: The Relation Between Kihon, Kata, and Kumite? Some Answers. The Shotokan Times 2019.

Wiessmann, Florian: “Learn to Move”: Kata as A Movement Based Learning Approach. The Shotokan Times 2019.